With the end of coal and gas in the pipeline, we’ve seen the first signs of a chemical industry that’s coming into the energy sector, says Dr. Daniel Leib, a senior lecturer in energy and environment at the University of Newcastle.
Dr Leib says the chemical industry has a lot to offer: it provides cheap and clean energy that can be used in industries like cement, ceramics, plastics, and metals.
Dr. Leib and his team of scientists and students are developing a new chemical energy technique that uses CO2 as a catalyst to convert the CO2 gas into a chemical reaction that converts CO2 to CO2 fuel.
In the process, the chemicals in the reaction are broken down into their components and the fuel becomes available for other uses.
“When the process is used in conjunction with energy production, we can turn CO2 into a renewable energy source,” Dr Lei says.
“The main energy we’re looking at in the process here is a renewable fuel that can then be used for energy storage and other things.”
The process of converting CO2 directly into fuel is called pyrolysis.
For the most part, pyrolic acid is used to make hydrochloric acid, which is used as a solvent in the pyrolysium reaction.
The reaction takes place at a gas condenser, but a more powerful pyrochlorine is needed to get the reaction going.
The chemical energy process uses carbon dioxide as the catalyst, but carbon monoxide can also be used to increase the rate of reaction.
The result is CO2, which becomes the chemical fuel.
When CO2 is converted to CO3 and hydrogen, it produces CO2 hydrochloride.
The CO3 hydrochlorides can be converted to hydrochlorotric acid, or HCN, to make HCN gas.
The HCN is then used as the fuel for the pyrotechnics.
The researchers have created a series of simple pyro reactions that can produce the fuel at a very low cost.
For example, a simple reaction with the hydrochlorite catalyst can produce fuel at just over $1.25 per kg, or about 30 times cheaper than coal and natural gas.
To get a sense of the amount of CO2 being used to convert to HCN fuel, the researchers measured the amount in each step.
It’s easy to see that the first step takes up about 30% of the CO3.
However, the next two steps use up a lot of CO3, at about 80% and 60% respectively.
It makes sense that this would be the case, because this is where the CO 3 is being converted to HCW and the HCN.
The next step is a bit trickier.
It takes up a significant amount of the fuel, but the amount varies with the amount and type of fuel being produced.
The process can also use up about 40% of a single CO3 reaction, which makes it less efficient.
However if the fuel is used for a very long time, the amount used can reach 100% of an initial reaction.
This means the CO-3 reaction takes about 3.3 days to complete.
In a more complicated example, the team produced a fuel using more than 1,000 kg of carbon monamine, which was then used for more than two months to produce fuel.
The results were not a total surprise.
The team’s process takes up some CO2.
But the fuel was about twice as effective as coal and more than 50 times as efficient as natural gas, with a conversion efficiency of about 60%.
The results, published in Science, suggest that pyroLYC’s process can be scaled up to produce the same amount of fuel for less money.
“We’re seeing that this technology is really useful for a range of applications,” says Dr Leis.
“There are a range that are just as exciting as this one, because the materials are more suitable to do this type of work.
The material itself is much more economical than conventional fuels.
It can be produced in much less space than conventional hydrocarbon fuels, and it’s a lot more flexible and durable.”###The study was funded by the Australian Research Council’s Energy Systems Science Program.